Applicable to Courses: Health Team Relations, Allied Health Sciences I & II
Description of Students' Roles and Problem Situation: Health Occupations Students in Health Team Relations and Allied Health Sciences II will work as teams in which students assume the roles of disabled individual, videographer and assistant to the disabled person. They work to determine the struggles that may exist for the handicapped individual and to explore the potential inaccessibility for some disabled individuals who attend classes or who visit the campus. After conducting the research, students present their solutions to the class.
Educational Goals: The students will
Submitting Teacher: LuAnn Brown, Starmount High School, 2516 Longtown Rd, Boonville, NC 27011
As you know, the school has been issued a warning citation from Mr. Earl Means, Yadkin County Disabilities Action Team Director. The fine, $5,000 is due to his office by November 1, 1999, if the school fails to make the campus handicap accessible.
Mr. Means is reacting to a complaint from a family of a recent graduate. An incident occurred on~graduation night involving the student's grandmother and her family. The grandmother is wheelchair bound. The daughter parked in the student parking lot near E building and attempted to maneuver the wheelchair onto the sidewalk curb. The wheelchair would not roll over the sidewalk curb. The daughter had to wheel her mother approximately 200 feet down the driveway to a level area, through the courtyard, and out to the stadium. The daughter began to have shortness of breath and chest pain, but refused medical attention. The family contacted Mr. Means who has requested to survey the campus with actual disabled teens and adults during a school day. He and the participants will go to classes on the same bell schedule as regular students. An observer will document any problems that the disabled individual has and assist the individual as needed.
I am asking you to utilize your students from HOE classes to act as disabled individuals and conduct your own survey to determine if the campus is or is not handicap accessible. The survey and findings should be completed by August 31. A full report by your students will be presented to a panel on September 7.
PHONE: (336) 468-2891
Meet the Problem Supplemental Information
Definition of Disabled
"Disabled," when applied to individuals evaluated under part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 in North Carolina, refers to individuals who are identified as autistic, behaviorally-emotionally handicapped, deaf-blind, hearing impaired, mentally handicapped, multi-handicapped,orthopedically impaired, other health impaired, specific learning disabled, speech-language impaired, traumatic brain injured, and visually impaired who, by reason thereof, require Special Education and related services, and who, because of their handicapping condition, cannot succeed in regular workforce development education programs without special assistance. These disabled individuals must be certified by standards established by the Division of Exceptional Children Services.
Definitions of Disabling Conditions
1. Mentally Handicapped. Mentally handicapped refers to those individuals with significantly sub-average general cognitive functioning and a reduced rate of learning. This condition exists concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, is manifested during the developmental period, and adversely affects the student's educational performance. (This includes Trainable and Educable Mentally Handicapped and severe profound.)
2. Hearing Impaired. Hearing impaired children are those with hearing losses that are handicapping educationally and developmentally and who, with or without amplification, may require various instructional modifications and related services in order to make full use of school experiences. Hearing impaired is a generic term which includes all hearing losses ranging from mild to profound.
3. Multi-handicapped. Multi-handicapped. students have a combination of two or more handicaps (such as mentally handicapped/emotionally handicapped, mentally handicapped/blind, deaf/blind etc.), the combination of which causes such developmental and educational problems that the student cannot be properly accommodated in special programs that primarily serve one handicapping condition. Students who are severely multi-handicapped have serious primary disabilities that are cognitive and/or behavioral and require significantly more resources than are provided for less handicapped children.
4. Visually Impaired. Functionally blind children have so little remaining vision that they must use Braille as their reading medium. Partially sighted children have a loss of vision, but are able to use regular or large type as their reading medium. These will generally be children who have a visual acuity between 10/70 and 20/200 in the better eye after correction. Children who are legally blind have a visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye after correction or a peripheral field so contracted that the widest diameter extends an arc no greater than 20 degrees.
5. Other Health Impaired. Other health impaired refers to chronic or acute health problems such as heart conditions, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephritis, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, diabetes, genetic impairments, or some other illness that may cause a student to have limited strength, vitality, or alertness to such an extent that special educational services are necessary.
6. Behaviorally/Emotionally Handicapped. One who, after receiving specially designed educational support services and intervention strategies in the regular educational setting, still exhibits patterns of situationally inappropriate interpersonal or intrapersonal behavior of such frequency, duration, and intensity to disrupt the student's own learning process. Frequency, duration, and intensity are long-standing patterns of behavior that occur regularly and often enough to consistently interfere with the student's own learning process.
7. Speech and Language Impaired. A student with a speech and language impairment has a disorder in articulation, language, voice, and/or fluency. A speech and language impairment may range in severity from mild to severe. It may be developmental or acquired, and students may demonstrate one or any combination of the four parameters listed above. A speech and language impairment may result in a primary handicapped condition or it may be secondary to other handicapping conditions.
8. Orthopedically Impaired. An orthopedically impaired child possesses a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects his/her educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital abnormalities and impairments from other causes.
9. Specific Learning Disabilities. Specific learning disabilities is an inclusive term used to denote various processing disorders presumed to be intrinsic to an individual (e.g., acquisition, organization, retrieval, or expression of information; effective problem-solving behaviors). For the purpose of special educational services, a student classified as learning disabled is one who, after receiving instructional intervention in the regular education setting, has a substantial discrepancy between ability and achievement. The disability is manifested by substantial difficulties in the acquisition and use of skills in listening comprehension, oral expression, written expression, reading, and/or mathematics. A learning disability may occur concomitantly with, but is not the primary result of, other handicapping conditions and/or environmental, cultural, and/or economic influences.
10. Autistic. Autism refers to a severe and chronic developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. The essential features include disturbances of: developmental rates and/or sequence responses to sensory stimuli speech, language and cognitive capacities capacities to relate to people, events, and objects Associated features include stereotyped motor patterns and erratic expression of emotions. Most children classified as autistic function at a mentally handicapped level of intellectual development.
11. Deaf-Blind. Deaf-blind students have concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs. "Disabled" under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 means that an individual has a physical or mental impairment. The impairments include any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss affecting one or more of the following body systems: neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs; cardiovascular; reproductive, digestive, genito-urinary; hemic and lymphatic; skin; and endocrine; or any mental or psychological disorder, such as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.
Source: North Carolina Department of Public Instruction Curriculum,
The Americans with Disabilities Act: A Brief Overview
Signed into law on July 26 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act is a wide-ranging legislation intended to make American Society more accessible to people with disabilities.
It is divided into five titles:
1. Employment (Title I) Business must provide reasonable accommodations to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in all aspects of employment. Possible changes may include restructuring jobs, altering the layout of workstations, or modifying equipment. Employment aspects may include the application process, hiring, wages, benefits, and all other aspects of employment. Medical examinations are highly regulated.
2. Public Services (Title II) Public services, which include state and local government instrumentalities, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, and other commuter authorities, cannot deny services to people with disabilities participation in programs or activities which are available to people without disabilities. In addition, public transportation systems, such as public transit buses, must be accessible to individuals with disabilities.
3. Public Accommodations (Title III) All new construction and modifications must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. For existing facilities, barriers to services must be removed if readily achievable. Public accommodations include facilities such as restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, retail stores, etc., as well as privately owned transportation systems.
4. Telecommunications (Title IV) Telecommunications companies offering telephone service to the general public must have telephone relay service to individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TTYs) or similar devices.
5. Miscellaneous (Title V) Includes a provision prohibiting either (a) coercing or threatening or (b) retaliating against the disabled or those attempting to aid people with disabilities in asserting their rights under the ADA. The ADA's protection applies primarily, but not exclusively, to "disabled" individuals. An individual is "disabled" if he or she meets at least any one of the following tests:
Other individuals who are protected in certain circumstances include 1) those, such as parents, who have an association with an individual known to have a disability, and 2) those who are coerced or subjected to retaliation for assisting people with disabilities in asserting their rights under the ADA. While the employment provisions of the ADA apply to employers of fifteen employees or more, its public accommodations provisions apply to all sizes of business, regardless of number of employees. State and local governments are covered regardless of size.
Source: The Americans with Disabilities Act: A Brief Overview,
4.6.1 Minimum Number. Parking spaces required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.6.2 through 4.6.5. Passenger loading zones required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.6.5 and 4.6.6.
4.6.2 Location. Accessible parking spaces serving a particular building shall be located on the shortest accessible route of travel from adjacent parking to an accessible entrance. In parking facilities that do not serve a particular building, accessible parking shall be located on the shortest accessible route of travel to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility. In buildings with multiple accessible entrances with adjacent parking, accessible parking spaces shall be dispersed and located closest to the accessible entrances.
4.6.3* Parking Spaces. Accessible parking spaces shall be at least 96 in (2440 mm) wide. Parking access aisles shall be part of an accessible route to the building or facility entrance and shall comply with 4.3. Two accessible parking spaces may share a common access aisle (see Fig. 9). Parked vehicle overhangs shall not reduce the clear width of an accessible route. Parking spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.
4.6.4* Signage. Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as reserved by a sign showing the symbol of accessibility (see 4.30.7). Spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b) shall have an additional sign "Van-Accessible" mounted below the symbol of accessibility. Such signs shall be located so they cannot be obscured by a vehicle parked in the space.
4.6.5* Vertical Clearance. Provide minimum vertical clearance of 114 in (2895 mm) at accessible passenger loading zones and along at least one vehicle access route to such areas from site entrance(s) and exit(s). At parking spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b), provide minimum vertical clearance of 98 in (2490 mm) at the parking space and along at least one vehicle access route to such spaces from site entrance(s) and exit(s).
4.6.6 Passenger Loading Zones. Passenger loading zones shall provide an access aisle at least 60 in (1525 mm) wide and 20 ft (240 in)(6100 mm) long adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up space (see Fig. 10). If there are curbs between the access aisle and the vehicle pull-up space, then a curb ramp complying with 4.7 shall be provided. Vehicle standing spaces and access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all directions.
4.7 Curb Ramps.
4.7.1 Location. Curb ramps complying with 4.7 shall be provided wherever an accessible route crosses a curb.
4.7.2 Slope. Slopes of curb ramps shall comply with 4.8.2. The slope shall be measured as shown in Fig. 11. Transitions from ramps to walks, gutters, or streets shall be flush and free of abrupt changes. Maximum slopes of adjoining gutters, road surface immediately adjacent to the curb ramp, or accessible route shall not exceed 1:20.
4.7.3 Width. The minimum width of a curb ramp shall be 36 in (915 mm), exclusive of flared sides.
4.7.4 Surface. Surfaces of curb ramps shall comply with 4.5.
4.7.5 Sides of Curb Ramps. If a curb ramp is located where pedestrians must walk across the ramp, or where it is not protected by handrails or guardrails, it shall have flared sides; the maximum slope of the flare shall be 1:10 (see Fig. 12(a)). Curb ramps with returned curbs may be used where pedestrians would not normally walk across the ramp (see Fig. 12(b)).
4.7.6 Built-up Curb Ramps. Built-up curb ramps shall be located so that they do not project into vehicular traffic lanes (see Fig.13).
4.7.7 Detectable Warnings. [Provision suspended until July 26, 2001] A curb ramp shall have a detectable warning complying with 4.29.2. The detectable warning shall extend the full width and depth of the curb ramp.
4.7.8 Obstructions. Curb ramps shall be located or protected to prevent their obstruction by parked vehicles.
4.7.9 Location at Marked Crossings. Curb ramps at marked crossings shall be wholly contained within the markings, excluding any flared sides. (see Fig. 15).
4.7.10 Diagonal Curb Ramps. If diagonal (or corner type) curb ramps have returned curbs or other well-defined edges, such edges shall be parallel to the direction of pedestrian flow. The bottom of diagonal curb ramps shall have 48 in (1220 mm) minimum clear space as shown in Fig. 15(c) and (d). If diagonal curbramps are provided at marked crossings, the 48 in (1220 mm) clear space shall be within the markings (see Fig. 15(c) and (d)). If diagonal curb ramps have flared sides, they shall also have at least a 24 in (610 mm) long segment of straight curb located on each side of the curb ramp and within the marked crossing (see Fig.15(c)).
Source: US Access Board: Accessibility for People with Disabilities, http://www.access-board.gov
Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibilities Guide, http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm
Applied Technical Mathematics (Spatial Sense, Measurement, and Geometry)
The learner will:
1. Use properties and relationships in geometry to solve problems.
2. Select and use measuring devices and appropriate units of measurement to solve problems.
3. Compare measurements to specified tolerances.
4. Use significant digits to indicate accuracy of measurement.
Trade and Industrial Education
The learner will:
1. Develop basic manipulative and technological skills relative to industrial occupations through a combination of laboratory experiences and on-the-job training experiences.
2. Utilize instruction in such areas as human relations, safety and health, positive work habits, and employability skills.
3. Develop the skills needed to exercise and follow effective leadership in fulfilling occupational, social, and civic responsibilities.
Communications Skills (English, Writing, Grammar)
The learner will demonstrate characteristics of a reader.
1. Recognizes the range of experience that reading provides.
2. Uses text organization as an aid to comprehension of increasingly difficult content materials.
3. Creates clear goals when engaged in complex reading materials and tasks.
4. Recognizes various documentation techniques in text.
5. Locates, selects, and rejects important information needed to complete a task.
6. Engages in a research process to meet information needs.
7. Interprets surface and underlying meanings in a work
8. Connects literature text with personal experiences by writing in reading log/response journal.
9. Writes using complex characters and episodes with teacher support and independently.
The learner will:
1. Demonstrate knowledge and skills in the use of computer and other technologies.
2. Practice and refine knowledge and skills in keyboarding/word processing/desktop publishing, spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, and telecommunications in preparing classroom assignments and projects.
3. Select and use appropriate technology tools to efficiently collect, analyze, and display data.
4. Use a variety of technologies to access, analyze, interpret, synthesize, apply, and communicate information.
Arts Education (Dance, Music, Theater Arts, Visual Arts)
The learner will:
1. Select and use appropriate technology tools to efficiently collect, analyze, and display data.
2. Select and use appropriate technologies as a means of artistic expression.
3. Use electronic resources for research.
4. Use technological tools for class assignments, projects, and presentations.
5. Adhere to Fair Use and Multimedia Copyright Guidelines, citing sources of copyrighted materials in papers, projects, and multimedia presentations.
6. Use information for problem solving, decision making, and planning.
The learner will:
1. Use the following steps in the development of problem solving: Recognize a problem; define the problem; gather data (compare and classify information); select an appropriate strategy; and implement the strategy.
2. Use the following steps in making decisions: identify a situation in which decision is required; secure needed factual information relevant to making the decision; recognize the values implicit in the situation and the issues that flow from them; develop criteria for decisions; identify alternative courses of action and predict likely consequences of each; make a decision based on data obtained; and implement the decision.
3. Develop intrapersonal skills by communicating own beliefs, feelings, and convictions; self-monitor one's thinking process; select an appropriate strategy to resolve an internal conflict.
4. Develop interpersonal skills by: recognition of and demonstration mutual respect between human beings; select an appropriate strategy to resolve an external conflict.
5. Development of group participation skills by: contributing to the development of a supportive climate in working with others; work effectively in groups; follow democratic procedures; practice conflict resolution skills; practice conflict mediation skills.
6. Accept that change is inevitable and natural.
7. Develop skills needed to promote desired change or inhibit undesirable change.
8. Revise thinking as new information becomes evident.
9. Develop skills that promote communication and demonstrate respect for other cultures.
10. Develop appropriate strategies to deal with conflict.
Health Team Relations
The learner will:
1. Analyze issues related to culture, diversity, and individual differences.
2. Apply behaviors appropriate for health professionals as they relate to cultural awareness.
Allied Health Sciences II
The learner will:
1. Analyze issues related to rehabilitative modalities.
2. Assist with ambulation with and without devices.
3. Assist with activities of daily living.
Source: Department of Public Instruction Curriculum, http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/curriculum/
How can we, Starmount High School Health Occupations Education students, determine the accessibility to school facilities by the handicapped, in such a way that class time is not disrupted; that we are perceived as actual disabled students and allowed to conduct the research; that costs are kept within established guidelines, and, overall awareness about the disabled has been raised.
Badasch, S. and Chesebro, D. (1997). Introduction to Health Occupations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Brady/Prentice Hall.
Flynn, G.C. (1997). Health: skills for wellness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Marketing Education Resource Center, Inc. (1994). Treating others fairly at work (Huma RelationsLAP 24) [Brochure].
Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibilities Guidelines. http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm
Americans with Disabilities Act: A Brief Overview. janweb.icdi.wvu.edu/kinder/index.htm
Definition of Disability. http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/curriculum/vocational/part3/definitions.html
US Access Board: Accessibility for People with Disabilities. http://www.access-board.gov/
US Department of Justice: Americans with Disabilities Act. http://www.usdoj.gov/
To provide solutions for lack of handicap accessibility at Starmount High School, HOE students will work in groups of three. Specific disabilities will be addressed and the groups will make the choice. One student will be the disabled individual, one student will be the videographer, and one student will be available to assist the disabled only if a situation becomes a risk. The students will attend some classes and record reactions of other students and teachers as well as the difficulty or the ease of moving around the campus for a total of three days. The day will include extracurricular activities. Each student will write a journal entry at intervals that record the frustrations, jubilation, and reactions regarding the disability. Specific problems with the structure of the buildings and grounds will be documented in the journals. Students will convene and present the findings to the respective HOE class. Each group will assess the project using a performance rubric. The coach/teacher will assess the process using a performance rubric and coaching questions. Student s will be able to make any corrections prior to the formal presentation.
Each groupís video and oral presentation will be presented to a panel consisting of: the principal, assistant principals, 2 special needs teachers, 1 teacher from each building (7), the county maintenance supervisor, the superintendent, the vocational director, 2 disabled students and 2 disabled adults.
One or two contributed information-low quality ___1
Federal guidelines state that 2 parking spaces must be located on the shortest accessible route of travel from adjacent parking to an accessible entrance of a building. The spaces must be 96 inches wide and signage must be posted to designate as a handicap parking space. Penalty of $250 signage must also be posted.
1. Two regular parking spaces all ready exist, therefore, costs will be low or none.
2. Handicap parking spaces will be constructed in the student parking lot at C building.
3. Meets federal guidelines.
4. Students will be actively involved in measuring and marking spaces, and, constructing signage.
1. Planning student involvement will be difficult due to time constraints and availability.
2. Designated or planned areas are not conducive for wheelchair studentsí needs because of barriers.
3. Satisfies need for parking only.
4. Not enough spaces to match the number of disabled teens on campus who drive or who are transported.
1. Because physical barriers still exist, we have not met the needs of students/visitors.
2. Competition for spaces, overuse by some, others are never given the opportunity to use.
3. Spaces will be utilized.
Ramps at curbs near building doors and in student parking lot at median curbs will be constructed.
1. Costs can be minimal if donations of paving materials are made and volunteers or construction technology students construct ramps.
2. Meets federal guidelines.
3. Can be completed in a short amount of time if materials are available.
4. Provides accessibility from the student parking lot for those who are mobility impaired.
1. Can be expensive if materials are not donated and volunteers are not available.
2. Can hinder flow of vehicular traffic through driveway.
3. Provides for only those who are mobility impaired.
4. Structure or design of driveway and curbs will dictate design of ramps.
1. Ramps can become a hazard if not properly painted to attract attention to same.
2. Possibility of lawsuit if someone falls over a ramp that is not properly identified.
3. Possibility of lawsuit and/or further fines if campus does not comply.
Strategy Solution (Most Viable Strategy)
Strategy A, the designation and construction of 2 handicap parking spaces near C building is the most logical choice. Although this is a low number, the spaces are currently available in the lot. Construction will be minimal, costs will be minimal, and the school can actively involve students who will apply math and technical skills. This solution also demonstrates that work has begun on implementing accessible handicap facilities at Starmount High School.
Prior to the oral presentation to the review panel, the students will present the videotapes, journals, and oral observations to the class. The teacher will grade the individual student according to his/her assigned role (performed as assigned)-25 points; journal entries (grammar, punctuation, legible)-25 points and overall teamwork (contributed vital information within the group, spoke fluently with a steady and assured voice regarding role and lessons learned as a team and as a disabled person)-30 points. These points will be added with the capstone assessment or student assessment instrument for a maximum of 100 points.
In debriefing the problem, discussion of the roles played and the struggles and triumphs that resulted and those viewed on the videotapes, two groups determined that the disabled has little access, freedom, and privacy and that further research by those at the federal level familiar with the guidelines should survey the campus. Another group determined that the use of landscape materials at the parking lot curbs could be used rather than asphalt.
Further discussion and review of the journal entries found that many of the opinions and perceptions regarding the disabled were changed to a higher level of understanding and empathy rather than sympathy.
C (Cognition) M (Metacognition) E (Epistemic Cognition)
Meeting the Problem
1. Define your role in the project-disabled (visually impaired, hearing impaired, mobility impaired). How are you planning to learn about the disability? C
2. What types of resources will be helpful to use in learning abut the disability? M
3. How extensive do you portray the disability? M, EC
Know/Need to Know Board
4. What is most important-the fine, the solutions? C
5. Where do you start to address the problem? M
6. What are your perceptions about the disabled now? EC
Writing Problem Statement
7. Under what conditions will the project be carried out? C, EC
8. What does it mean, " costs are kept within established guidelines"? C
9. How will the costs or budget be determined? C, M
Information Gathering and Sharing
10. What resources have been beneficial thus far? M
11. How do these resources help to define or explain solutions to the problem? C
12. What have you learned? C
Generating Possible Solutions
13. How will the solutions affect the other schools in the system especially Forbush High School? C, EC
14. What solution fits best? EC
15. What problems will result once the 2 new spaces are available? EC
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